Characterization of a new member of Iridoviridae, Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), found in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
A newly discovered iridescent virus that causes severe disease and high mortality in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei in Zhejiang, China, has been verified and temporarily specified as shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV). Histopathological examination revealed basophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue and hemocytes in gills, hepatopancreas, periopods and muscle. Using viral metagenomics sequencing, we obtained partial sequences annotated as potential iridoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses using amino acid sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) and ATPase revealed that it is a new iridescent virus but does not belong to the five known genera of Iridoviridae. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus exhibited a typical icosahedral structure with a mean diameter of 158.6 ± 12.5 nm (n = 30)(v-v) and 143.6 ± 10.8 nm (n = 30)(f-f), and an 85.8 ± 6.0 nm (n = 30) nucleoid. Challenge tests of L. vannamei via intermuscular injection, per os and reverse gavage all exhibited 100% cumulative mortality rates. The in situ hybridization showed that hemopoietic tissue, gills, and hepatopancreatic sinus were the positively reacting tissues. Additionally, a specific nested PCR assay was developed. PCR results revealed that L. vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii were SHIV-positive, indicating a new threat existing in the shrimp farming industry in China.
See more at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28928367/