Dietary organic acids for farmed shrimp and fish
Organic acids supplement in diets have recently been applied very common in aquaculture, because their benefits on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and disease resistance of farmed aquatic animals.
Organic acids have a specific antimicrobial activity, which is pH dependent. Organic acids improve protein and energy digestibilities by their impact on the gastrointestinal microflora and reducing microbial competition, thus farmed shrimp/fish fed organic acid diet has significantly higher survival and growth.
Furthermore, the use of formic acid is highly advised as its strong impact against a wide range of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. Several studies have been shown dietary organic acids/acidifiers inhibit bacterial pathogens/diseases, reduce mortality and support environment-friendly increased shrimp/aquaculture production.
ORGANIC ACID contains several organic acids, which optimizes healthy gut flora, reduces risk of pathogen proliferation, enhances unspecific immune response and lowers hepatopancreatic damage. ORGANIC ACID stimulates digestive enzymes and improves mineral absorption, resulting in higher growth rates of aquatic animals. It is recommended to daily mix ORGANIC ACID 5 g/kg of feed for farmed shrimp and 2 – 3 g/kg farmed fish during the whole culture period from stocking to harvest.
Organic acids and their salts have been used as feed additives functioning as acidifiers of animal feeds. Such organic acids, including acetic, butyric, citric, formic, lactic, malic, propionic and sorbic acid have been shown to improve health and growth performance in livestock and poultry by altering the gastrointestinal tract function and energy metabolism, increasing the availability of nutrients and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Luckstadt, 2008).
“The antimicrobial action of organic acids is due to pH reduction in the environment, disruption of membrane transport and/or permeability, anion accumulation, or a reduction in internal cellular pH by the dissociation of hydrogen ions from the acid (FDA, 2013).”