Dietary vitamin C for farmed shrimp and fish
Commercially cultured Penaeid shrimp species such as tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), blue shrimp (L. stylirostris) and kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) require a dietary vitamin C for maximum growth and survival.
Guary et al., 1976 were the first to observe that vitamin C was required for maximum growth in penaeid shrimp.
Lightner et al., 1977 and Magarelli et al., 1979 described a vitamin C deficiency disease of penaeid shrimp.
He et al., 1993 studied a vitamin C need of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).
Li et al., 1985 studied an elevated levels of ascorbic acid dietary (vitamin C) to increase immune responses in channel catfish.
Hardie et al., 1991 observed the effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on immune response of salmon (Salmo salar L.). Lack of vitamin C causes skeletal deformities in farmed fish and vitamin C also plays a decisive role in the healing of wounds (HALVER, 2002).
A dietary supplement with antioxidants such as vitamin C help to protect aquatic animals from heat stress and hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress (Hwang and Lin, 2002 and Kolkovski et al., 2000).
Vitamin C prevents stress and enhances resistance, stimulates the immune system to against pathogens and other disease-causing bacteria, thereby increases stress tolerance and adaptability of farmed shrimp and fish when environmental aquaculture conditions are unfavorable.
Vitamin C mitigates a harmful effects of ammonia on farmed fish and shrimp. Vitamin C provides protection against oxidative damage and against bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. Vitamin C is essential to cell metabolism, collagen synthesis and chitin formation.
Vitamins play important roles in farmed aquatic animal health as antioxidants by deactivating damaging free radicals produced through normal cellular activity and from various external stressors, and increase stress tolerance caused by unsuitable environmental conditions.