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Aquatic Animal Disease Report

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1. White Spot Disease (WSD) Pathogen: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) Species affected: Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei (10-85 DOC) Name of affected area: reported in 18 provinces (total area 7,279 ha) including Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Thua Tien Hue, Phu Yen, Binh Dinh, Ho Chi [...]

1. White Spot Disease (WSD)

Pathogen: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)

Species affected: Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei (10-85 DOC)

Name of affected area: reported in 18 provinces (total area 7,279 ha) including Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Thua Tien Hue, Phu Yen, Binh Dinh, Ho Chi Minh, Long An, Tien Gang, Ben Tre, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ca Mau.

Mortality rate: average to high, 100% in some cases within 10 d.

Clinical signs: lethargic or moribund shrimps aggregated at pond surface and edges, slow to erratic swimming behavior, overall body color often reddish, minute to large (0.5-2.0 mm diameter) white inclusions embedded in the cuticle;

Control measures: early harvest, strict isolation of infected ponds from movement, strengthened control of transportation, disinfection of infected ponds using Calcium hypochlorite (chlorine).

2. Yellowhead Disease (YHD)

Pathogen: Yellowhead virus (YHV)

Species affected: Litopenaeus vannamei

Name of affected area: reported in Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue and Bac Lieu provinces with 35.67 ha affected.

Mortality rate: could reach 100% in 2-5 days after infection.

Clinical signs: Affected shrimps showed sudden increase in feeding activity and abnormal growth, then loss of appetite; aggregated near the pond surface or at the edge of the ponds followed by mortalities. Body is discolored, cephalothorax/hepatopancreas swollen and turned to color yellow or brown. Tissues of most organs (gills, hepatopancreas, gut epidermis) were necrotic with degenerated cell nuclei. Shrimps were most sucsceptible at the age of 20-70 DOC (no infection in shrimps under 15 DOC). Fastest transmission of the disease was observed in shrimps at 20-30 DOC when mortality could reach 100% over 2-5 days of infection.

Control measures: Disinfection and discharge of contaminated water; movement and transportation control.

3. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Diseae (AHPND)

Pathogen: Vibrio parahaemolyticus with Phage A3

Species affected: Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei (10-45 DOC)

Name of affected area: reported in 18 provinces and caused losses in total shrimp culture area of 2,125 ha.

Affected provinces include Nam Dinh, Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ho Chi Minh, Dong Nai, Long An, Tien Giang, Ben Tre, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ca Mau.

Mortality rate: could reach 95% in intensive and semi-intensive farms;

Clinical signs: shrimps become lethargic with soft, darkened shells, mottling of the carapace. Pathology appears to be limited to hepatopancreas.

Control measures: strict isolation of infected ponds from movement and transport controls, disinfection of infected ponds using Calcium hypochlorite (chlorine).

Read more at http://www.enaca.org/modules/library/publication.php?publication_id=1143&title=quarterly-aquatic-animal-disease-report-q2-2014

The Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus: A Brief Review of What We Do and Do Not Know

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Summary: Given its high prevalence, its wide distribution and its remarkable capacity to cause severe mortality in shrimp, the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) may deserve far more attention than it has received, as it remains considered as one of the most serious problems plaguing the global shrimp farming industry. Furthermore, its real [...]

Summary: Given its high prevalence, its wide distribution and its remarkable capacity to cause severe mortality in shrimp, the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) may deserve far more attention than it has received, as it remains considered as one of the most serious problems plaguing the global shrimp farming industry. Furthermore, its real measurable impact over wild shrimp populations remains unknown. Undeniably, the progress that we have reached today on the knowledge of its geographical distribution, clinical signs, genetic diversity, transmission and virulence may help to identify and understand important aspects of its biology and pathogenesis. However, the information regarding the molecular events that occur during the infection process is scarce. Thus, it may not be surprising to find that there are no therapeutic options available for the prophylaxis or treatments to reduce the deleterious impact of this viral pathogen to date. The aim of this review is to integrate and discuss the current state of knowledge concerning several aspects of the biology of IHHNV and to highlight potential future directions for this area of research.

S. Vega-Heredia1, F. Mendoza-Cano2 and A. Sánchez-Paz2

1 Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, México

2 Laboratorio de Análisis Integral Acuícola, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Hermosillo, Sonora, México

See more at http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Arturo_Sanchez-Paz/publication/221888240_The_infectious_hypodermal_and_haematopoietic_necrosis_virus_a_brief_review_of_what_we_do_and_do_not_know/links/0fcfd505ca1a893db8000000

VIRUS: IHHNV

Figure 1 A small juvenile Penaeus stylirostris showing gross signs of acute IHHN disease. Visible through the cuticle, especially on the abdomen, are multifocal white to buff colored lesions in the cuticular epithelium or subcutis (arrows). While such lesions are common in P. stylirostris with acute terminal IHHN disease, they are not pathognomonic for IHHN disease.

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Figure 2 Examples of live sub-adult P. vannamei that show gross signs of IHHNV-caused RDS (runt deformity syndrome). The most obvious deformity in these shrimp are their bent rostrums.

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Figure 3 Dorsal view of juvenile P. vannamei (preserved in Davidson’s AFA) that show gross signs of IHHNV-caused RDS. Bent rostrums (to the left or to the right) are illustrated.

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Figure 4 Lateral view of juvenile P. vannamei (preserved in Davidson’s AFA) that show gross signs of IHHNV-caused RDS. Cuticular abnormalities of the sixth abdominal segment and tail fan are illustrated.

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See more at http://mail-cenaim.espol.edu.ec/noti/cursos_material/curso19/ligthner/Photo3_1.html

Post-Harvest Handling and Marketing of Shrimp and Prawn in South-Western Region of Bangladesh

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Abstract: The current study was designed to investigate the post-harvest handling situation in the marketing channel of shrimp/prawn of Bangladesh. A total of 75 farmers, 75 forias, 70 depot owners, 30 auctioneers, 30 commission agents and 20 factory owners were interviewed on the post-harvest and marketing of shrimp/prawn from Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat district. Most [...]

Abstract: The current study was designed to investigate the post-harvest handling situation in the marketing channel of shrimp/prawn of Bangladesh. A total of 75 farmers, 75 forias, 70 depot owners, 30 auctioneers, 30 commission agents and 20 factory owners were interviewed on the post-harvest and marketing of shrimp/prawn from Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat district. Most of the farmers and local traders were found to be unaware about the proper post-harvest handling of the products to retain the European Union approved quality.

Post-harvest handling and marketing channel of shrimp involved six major stakeholder groups viz. farmers, local forias, depot owners, chatal auctioneers, commission agents and factory owners. The marketing chain was plagued by various problems at different stakeholder levels. Fish markets were found to be managed, financed and controlled by a group of powerful intermediaries called account holders. The depot owners and the commission agents were found to be rich and powerful in the chain and exploited the farmers and small traders. Icing was adequate in almost all stages of prawn/shrimp marketing chain except in the farmers’ level.

Assurance of good quality shrimp product as per the FAO-CCRF for responsible utilization of fish is a great challenge in Bangladesh. As shrimp is a perishable food, it requires proper handling, processing and distribution if it is to be utilized in a cost effective and efficient way.

A concerted effort is needed to upgrade the marketing chain of shrimp in Bangladesh to reduce the marketing cost, stabilize the prices and overall improvement of the marketing efficiency.

See more at http://idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms4(6)12/15.pdf

 

Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon

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Summary: White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of [...]

Summary: White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011–2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~103 copy μg−1 shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12230/abstract

Isolation and characterization of surfactin produced by Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2

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Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. Surfactin can disrupt the growth and development of other organisms. Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (BP-KJS-2) was used to produce a lipopeptide-type surfactin. To accomplish this, a surfactin-producing BP-KJS-2 was fermented by soybeans. The [...]

Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. Surfactin can disrupt the growth and development of other organisms.

Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (BP-KJS-2) was used to produce a lipopeptide-type surfactin. To accomplish this, a surfactin-producing BP-KJS-2 was fermented by soybeans. The surfactin was then purified by a procedure including ethanol treatment and preparative chromatography. Next, the biochemical structure of the purified surfactin was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and high-resolution ESI Q-Tof mass spectrometry (Q-Tof MS).

In addition, the masses of the four peaks were determined to be 1007, 1021, 1035, and 1049 m/z revealing that the compound was mixture with quasi-molecular ions. Taken together, these findings indicated that the lipopeptide had a cyclic structure and amino acid composition of Gln-Leu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu, and that the major lipopeptide product of BP-KJS-2 is the surfactin isoform. In addition, this lipopeptide showed strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria at the level of 0.05 mg/mL.

Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research, May 2009, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 711-715, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471885

Marine LABS probiotic improves gut health of fish and shrimp.

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