Role of Vitamin C & Multivitamin Diets for Enhacement of Immunity, Growth & Biological Performance in Shrimps/Fish
Good nutrition in aquaculture systems is essential to economically produce a healthy and high quality product, writes Mr Prakash Chandra Behera, Technical Manager (Aqua Division), PVS Group, India.
Vitamins are essential nutrients found in foods. They perform specific and vital functions in a variety of body systems and these are crucial for maintaining optimal health. Vitamins are a heterogeneous group of organic compounds essential for the growth and maintenance of aquatic animal life. The majority of vitamins are not synthesized by the fish body or at a rate sufficient to meet the aquatic animals needs.
Vitamins are distinct from the major food nutrients (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) in that they are not chemically related to one another. They are present in very small quantities within animal and plant foodstuffs. They are required by the fish body in trace amounts. Approximately 15 vitamins have been isolated from biological materials and their essentiality depending on the species, the growth rate of the animal, feed composition, and the bacterial synthesizing capacity of the gastro-intestinal tract of the animal. In general, all fish display distinct morphological and physiological deficiency signs when individual vitamins are absent from the diet.
The two different types of vitamins are Fat-soluble vitamins and Water-soluble vitamins.
Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the bloodstream to carry out their functions. Excesses of these vitamins are stored in the liver, and are not needed every day in the diet.The fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in the presence of fat and can be stored within the fat reserves of the body whenever dietary intake exceeds metabolic demands.
Fat soluble: Vitamin A1 (Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), Vitamin A2 (Dehydroretinol), Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol), Vitamin E (Tocopherol, tocotrienols), Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone), Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone), Vitamin K (Menadione).
Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not stored by the body. Since they are eliminated in urine and require a continuous daily supply in fish/shrimp diet. Water-soluble vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage or preparation. Body stores being rapidly depleted in the absence of regular dietary water-soluble vitamin sources.
Water Soluble: Thiamin (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxol, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine), Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) Biotin (Vitamin H, vitamin B8), Folic acid (Vitamin M, Vitamin Bc, Vitamin B9) Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin), Choline (Gossypine), Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid).
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