Importance of Feed Enzymes for Shrimp and Fish in Sustainable Aquaculture

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Feeding enzymes to shrimps and fishes is one of the major nutritional advances in the aquaculture sector since last few years. Exogenous enzymes are now extensively used throughout the world as additives in animal diets. Also, supplementation with enzymes can help to eliminate the effects of antinutritional factors and improve the utilization of dietary energy and amino acids, resulting in improved performance of fish/shrimps (Farhangi and Carter, 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Soltan, 2009). The primary purpose of enzyme application [...]


The oft-overlooked water quality parameter: pH

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Farmers are aware of the importance of monitoring levels of dissolved oxygen in their production systems and of providing supplemental aeration in intensive fish and shrimp ponds. However, other water quality parameters – as simple as they may look – are often overlooked. One such parameter is pH, which in chemistry refers to a numeric scale used to specify the acid or alkaline condition of an aqueous solutions. In a practical sense, water pH may range from 0 to 14 [...]


High-density shrimp producer wins innovation award

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The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) will recognize a farmed shrimp producer in Brazil as a leader in innovation. Camanor’s high-density, land-based facility recycles water for multiple production cycles while preventing environmental degradation and the use of chemicals or antibiotics. At GAA’s annual GOAL conference in Vancouver next week, Camanor Produtos Marinhos Ltda. Director Werner Jost will accept the Preferred Freezer Services Global Aquaculture Innovation & Leadership Award for AquaScience®, what he calls a “new concept in sustainable shrimp production” operating [...]


Dietary organic acids used as growth promoters anti-microbials

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Disease is a major limiting factor to aquaculture expansion and productivity. Of particular concern to tilapia aquaculture are bacterial diseases caused by the Streptococcal groups, such as Streptococcus agalactiae, which can cause widespread mortalities, particularly in warm water and high intensive culture systems in various countrieS. Antibiotics such as oxytetracycline (OTC) are still being used as the most common treatment and/or prophylactic against bacterial diseases, including Streptococcus, in many sectors of the aquaculture industry. However, as the global trend in antibiotic use becomes [...]


Efficiency of mechanical aeration

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Paddlewheel design greatly impacts standard aeration efficiency Although widely implemented, the long-arm paddlewheel aerators typically used in Asia do not reflect the most efficient designs. Mechanical aerators are used increasingly in aquaculture because aeration can greatly increase the amount of production possible per unit area or volume of water. These devices usually are powered by electricity, but in some locations, small diesel engines are the power source. During a recent visit to a shrimp-farming area in Thailand, the author saw ponds aerated [...]


Phytoplankton a crucial component of aquaculture pond ecosystems

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Proper management critical for successful production Blue-green algae will often float to the pond surface and form scums that absorb heat and can elevate water temperatures. Ponds typically contain an abundance of phytoplankton. These organisms play an important role in pond ecology and influence water quality. Although phytoplankton usually are beneficial, under some conditions, they can be quite problematic in fish and shrimp production. Phytoplanktonic algae consist of thousands of species distributed primarily among the phyla Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta and Cyanophyta. [...]


Is It Time To Re-examine the Requirements for Shrimp Farm Certification? – Part 1

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The World Wildlife Fund suggested seven indicators – land use, water use, feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, wild fish inclusion in feeds, dissolved oxygen in receiving waters and energy use – as a means of assessing resource use and negative environmental impacts of aquaculture production facilities. Preliminary results from a survey of shrimp farms in Vietnam and Thailand reveal that these indicators can provide an objective accounting of resource use and negative environmental impacts – including acquisition of the [...]


Estimating Biofilter Size For RAS Systems

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Summary: To size a biofilter for use in a recirculating aquaculture system, the primary concern is to provide enough biofilter capacity to control total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) concentrations to a preset limit. Also critical is specifying the maximum feed rate for the system. The lower the TAN concentration going into a biofilter, the lower the volumetric TAN conversion rate for that filter will be. Sizing decisions are best based on previous experience with a given biofilter media in a specific [...]


Dr. George Chamberlain on EHP

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According to Dr. George Chamberlain, President of the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the disease that has emerged as a major risk to shrimp farmers in Asia, is unlikely to impact farmed shrimp production on the scale that early mortality syndrome (EMS) did. Unlike EMS, EHP is caused by a spore.  This means that even though it spreads fast locally, it should be easier to contain it on a global scale, with the chance of it spreading to Latin America unlikely, said Chamberlain. He [...]


Early Mortality Syndrome Outbreaks: A Microbial Management Issue in Shrimp Farming?

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A recent disease of farmed Penaeid shrimp, commonly referred to as “early mortality syndrome” (EMS) or more technically known as “acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease” (AHPND), was first reported in southern China in 2010 and subsequently in Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia [1]. The EMS/AHPND disease typically affects shrimp postlarvae within 20–30 days after stocking and frequently causes up to 100% mortality. The Global Aquaculture Alliance [2] has estimated that losses to the Asian shrimp culture sector amount to USD 1 [...]