Importance of Feed Enzymes for Shrimp and Fish in Sustainable Aquaculture

: 4127

Feeding enzymes to shrimps and fishes is one of the major nutritional advances in the aquaculture sector since last few years. Exogenous enzymes are now extensively used throughout the world as additives in animal diets. Also, supplementation with enzymes can help to eliminate the effects of antinutritional factors and improve the utilization of dietary energy and amino acids, resulting in improved performance of fish/shrimps (Farhangi and Carter, 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Soltan, 2009). The primary purpose of enzyme application [...]

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Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

: 2073

Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received [...]

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Functional Feeds as Feed Additives

: 1897

A feed additive can be defined as: a pure substance or a mixture of substances that is intentionally added to feeds and exert a single or several different specific functions; includes all nutritive or not, inert or active, natural or synthetic chemical compounds. Main feed additives used in the shrimp nutrition have traditionally included: antibiotics, probiotics, nutrients, pigments, enzymes, preservatives, antioxidants, attractants and appetite stimulants. Particularly of relevant importance, some feed additives have been characterized that stimulate the speed of [...]

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Aquatic Animal Disease Report

: 6689

1. White Spot Disease (WSD) Pathogen: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) Species affected: Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei (10-85 DOC) Name of affected area: reported in 18 provinces (total area 7,279 ha) including Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Thua Tien Hue, Phu Yen, Binh Dinh, Ho Chi Minh, Long An, Tien Gang, Ben Tre, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ca Mau. Mortality rate: average to high, 100% in some cases within 10 d. Clinical signs: lethargic or moribund shrimps aggregated [...]

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Applications of Probiotics in Aquaculture

: 2814

The need for sustainable aquaculture has promoted research into the use of probiotics on aquatic organisms. The initial interest was focused on their use as growth promoters and to improve the health of animals; however, new areas have been found, such as their effect on reproduction or stress tolerance, although this requires a more scientific development. 4.1. Growth Promoter Probiotics have been used in aquaculture to increase the growth of cultivated species, in reality it is not known whether these products increase the [...]

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Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

: 3803

The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there [...]

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Some concepts in probiotic bacteria

: 2388

The term probiotic has been defined as “a mono- or mixed culture of live microorganisms that when applied to animals or man, affect beneficially the host by improving the properties of the indigenous microflora”. Moriarty (1996a, 1998) extended the definition for aquaculture to include the addition of natural bacteria to tanks and ponds in which the animals live. Probiotic bacteria improve the health of shrimp or fish by controlling pathogens and improving water quality by modifying the microbial community composition [...]

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Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

: 4144

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives [...]

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Hydrogen Sulfide Toxic, But Manageable

: 3317

Summary: Hydrogen sulfide, which can form in pond bottom sediment, is toxic to aquatic animals because it interferes with reoxidation of cytochrome a3 in respiration. The main practices for lessening the risk of hydrogen sulfide toxicity are conservative feeding to avoid wasted feed on pond bottoms, plenty of aeration to prevent low dissolved-oxygen levels and provide a flow of oxygenated water across the soil-water interface, and liming to prevent acidic sediment and water. Claude E. Boyd, Ph.D., Department of Fisheries, and Allied [...]

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Hepatopancreas Colors Related To Vibrios Predict Survival Of Shrimp To EMS

: 4215

Monitoring of Vibrio bacteria in shrimp larvae determined a relationship among hepatopancreas color, bacteria concentration and signs of early mortality syndrome. Shrimp with brown hepatopancreases had 3.50 x 103 CFU/g Vibrio with no EMS and high survival. Shrimp with white hepatopancreases had 6.02 x 107 CFU/g Vibrio and died within 10 days. Some animals with both brown and white hepatopancreas tissue had low bacterial concentrations, but survival depended on pond conditions. Management procedures used after the onset of mortality increased survival. Outbreaks of [...]

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