Thailand: The History of Shrimp Farming and the Factors That Led to Its Growth

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Using traditional extensive techniques in large (30 hectares or more), low-lying coastal paddy fields, the first shrimp farms in Thailand were probably started during the 1930s.  Because of the dependence on natural tidal flow for wild seed and naturally occurring food organisms, yields were usually low (approximately 200 kilograms per hectare per year–kg/ha/yr). Semi-intensive shrimp farming in Thailand started during the early 1970s and was replaced by intensive shrimp farming beginning in 1987.  Penaeus monodon was the favored species because [...]

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Problems in shrimp culture during the wet season

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Recently, many farmers have faced the problem of fluctuations in salinity and temperature causing shrimp diseases; particularly yellowhead, white spot and luminescent bacteria that generally cause farmers to lose their crops. They have also had problems with stunted growth or black gill. Many of these problems can be overcome. Most farmers generally prefer to stock shrimp in the wet season, as they believe there are fewer problems than in the dry or cold seasons. However, culture in the wet season [...]

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India’s vannamei shrimp farming: Preparing for a better future

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The Society of Aquaculture Professionals (SAP) played a vital role in the introduction of Penaeus vannamei in India in 2009. “However, recently several issues are threatening the sustainability of this industry. SAP realised that it needs to intervene and bring these issues to the attention of key players in the industry in India as well as the authorities,” said president S Muthukaruppan. It organised a special session on November 8, 2014 in Chennai. SAP invited four speakers to give their views on [...]

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Escape from EMS/AHPND at SGIC

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How this is achieved is through management of culture systems, biosecurity, avoiding use of chlorine for pond and reservoir water disinfection and thorough clean-up of hatchery. Dr Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul at Centex Shrimp, Mahidol University said that with widespread destruction of crops with early mortality syndrome (EMS) in vannamei shrimp farming, some farms in Thailand have returned to farming the black tiger shrimp in 2013. The Shrimp Genetic Improvement Center (SGIC), Surat Thani, Thailand has largely escaped being infected with the bacteria causing [...]

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What do we know about EHP?

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• Tissue specific for HP unlike most other microsporidians which affect muscle • Transmitted orally between shrimp with no need for an intermediate vector very unusual and very worrisome • Very difficult to visualize with normal histology • Requires practice and patience • Once spores are in ponds very difficult to eradicate HP with EHP spores Control of EHP • Two fold approach to possible control – Broodstock carriers shed spores in feces which contaminate egg and nauplii surfaces. – Farmed animals shed spores into ponds which in [...]

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India Harvests Curtailed by Mortalities

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Diseases—whitespot and white muscle disease—and high temperatures are limiting the harvest of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Andhra Pradesh, the heart of the shrimp farming industry in India.  On May 4, 2015, farm-gate prices for whole, white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) were steady for 30, 40 and 50 count animals at $6.74, $5.49 and $4.70, respectively.  Prices on all sizes fell in April 2015. In Tamil Nadu, India’s second-largest shrimp farming region after Andhra Pradesh, whitespot has “wiped out” some farms, according [...]

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Shrimp feeding strategy

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A common observation of shrimp feeding behavior is that shrimp consume pellets for a relatively short time post-introduction to the pond. This unconsumed (refused) portion of the ration continues to decompose via hydration and biological/microbial activity. In some cases, the refused portion of the feed can exceed 60% of that offered. Despite failure to consume feed, shrimp can still benefit nutritionally from this process. For example, up to 75% of pellet carbon can be assimilated by other benthic organisms [...]

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India: New disease worries vannamei shrimp farmers

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After achieving a record production of shrimp, which allowed the value of seafood exports from India to grow by 14 per cent yoy in the nine months ending December 2014, the industry fears that the disease known as RMS (Running Mortality Syndrome) may affect the production of vanamei shrimp in the new fiscal year. The main affected states are Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, in the southern east coast, which are the major producers of this variety of shrimp, and the top earners in the seafood export [...]

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Low-Salinity Culture Water Controls Vibrios In Shrimp Postlarvae

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Summary: In a survey of Vibrio concentrations in white shrimp postlarvae at two inland farms, hatchery postlarvae were acclimated in water with salinity reduced from 30 and 5 ppt to 2 ppt at the farms. One farm stocked postlarvae in nursery ponds, and the other stocked directly into growout ponds. Vibrio concentrations fell after acclimation, and the bacteria were eradicated from the postlarvae during the first days of culture.   Inland farms in southern Ecuador can produce up to 10 mt/ha of shrimp using underground [...]

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What Size Are Your Postlarvae?

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Summary: Although the characteristics of shrimp postlarvae have changed over time, the standard method used to identify their size has not. Usually, the “size” of postlarvae is considered their chronological age after completing metamorphosis. However, length and weight – as well as their mathematical relationship – are also of vital importance in aquaculture science. After an analysis of biometric data for 480 postlarvae from different culture systems, the authors agreed that weight is more relevant than age in the [...]

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