Shrimp farming experience: Disease prevention or treatment?

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Shrimp is a lower animal without specific immune system. Thus, its ability to resist pathogens is poor. There is currently no vaccine for disease prevention in shrimp. Weak shrimp is easily susceptible to virus (e.g., white spot, Taura syndrome) and bacteria (e.g., Vibrio). If shrimp has serious disease, farmers have to not only deal with reduced yield, even face lost, but also pay for the expensive cost of pond treatment. Shrimp body temperature varies based on temperature of the surrounding [...]


CIBA’s new eco-friendly ‘Biofloc’ technology for shrimp farmers

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CHENNAI: To help India retain its market share in global shrimp export and neutralise disease threat, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) is popularising ‘Biofloc’ technology, which is eco-friendly and sustainable. CIBA scientists say commercial interest in biofloc technology is threefold. It provides high productivity, low feed-conversion ratios (FCRs) and a stable culture environment. Also, with emerging bacterial and viral problems coupled with rising costs for energy, biofloc appears to be an answer for sustainable production at lower cost. Marking a [...]


Efficiency of mechanical aeration

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Paddlewheel design greatly impacts standard aeration efficiency Although widely implemented, the long-arm paddlewheel aerators typically used in Asia do not reflect the most efficient designs. Mechanical aerators are used increasingly in aquaculture because aeration can greatly increase the amount of production possible per unit area or volume of water. These devices usually are powered by electricity, but in some locations, small diesel engines are the power source. During a recent visit to a shrimp-farming area in Thailand, the author saw ponds aerated [...]


Phytoplankton a crucial component of aquaculture pond ecosystems

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Proper management critical for successful production Blue-green algae will often float to the pond surface and form scums that absorb heat and can elevate water temperatures. Ponds typically contain an abundance of phytoplankton. These organisms play an important role in pond ecology and influence water quality. Although phytoplankton usually are beneficial, under some conditions, they can be quite problematic in fish and shrimp production. Phytoplanktonic algae consist of thousands of species distributed primarily among the phyla Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta and Cyanophyta. [...]


Zooplankton and Phytoplankton

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Zooplankton Zooplanktons are planktonic animals that range in size from microscopic rotifers to macroscopic jellyfish. The distribution of zooplankton is governed by salinity, temperature and food availability in the environment. The smallest zooplankton can be characterized as recyclers of water-column nutrients and often are closely tied to measures of nutrient enrichment. Larger Zooplanktons are important food for forage fish species and larval stages of all fish. They also link the primary producers (phytoplankton) with larger or higher trophic-level organisms. The zooplankton community [...]


Problems in shrimp culture during the wet season

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Recently, many farmers have faced the problem of fluctuations in salinity and temperature causing shrimp diseases; particularly yellowhead, white spot and luminescent bacteria that generally cause farmers to lose their crops. They have also had problems with stunted growth or black gill. Many of these problems can be overcome. Most farmers generally prefer to stock shrimp in the wet season, as they believe there are fewer problems than in the dry or cold seasons. However, culture in the wet season [...]


Shrimp Out Of Water Shipping Live Shrimp In Waterless Conditions

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Summary: Live markets represent a promising niche in regions where locally raised seafood cannot compete with inexpensive imports. Study results suggested regional shrimp producers could effectively reach premium markets by shipping using waterless methods. The optimum combination for waterless shipping of marine shrimp involved water temperature reduction of 10 °C/hour and holding at 12 to 15 °C in moist wood shavings for up to 24 hours. Conditions were similar for freshwater prawns, but they could not tolerate temperatures below [...]


Greenhouse Emissions From Aquaculture

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Summary: To quantify the carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in tropical earthen ponds, the authors used freshwater prawn farming managed according to different strategies as a model. Ponds with both nighttime aeration and artificial substrates released an average 3.3, 2.0 and 1.5 times more carbon dioxide than traditional ponds or those with aeration or substrates alone, respectively. The absorption of carbon dioxide occurred only in ponds using night aeration. Methane was released in the day and night. The diffusion chamber [...]


Aquatic Animal Disease Report

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1. White Spot Disease (WSD) Pathogen: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) Species affected: Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei (10-85 DOC) Name of affected area: reported in 18 provinces (total area 7,279 ha) including Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Thua Tien Hue, Phu Yen, Binh Dinh, Ho Chi Minh, Long An, Tien Gang, Ben Tre, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ca Mau. Mortality rate: average to high, 100% in some cases within 10 d. Clinical signs: lethargic or moribund shrimps aggregated [...]


How can you control Vibrio bacteria?

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After Dr. Lightner confirmed its virulence using Koch’s postulate, it was found that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that is the cause of EMS in Asia. Most recently it has also been found to cause EMS in Mexico, which is far away from Asia. It is possible that someone brought brooder shrimp from an Asian country where EMS is prevalent into Mexico for breeding purposes and the weak postlarvae got EMS, or perhaps they used very fast-growing breeding stock [...]