Tag - Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Probiotics in Shrimp Aquaculture

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Shrimp ranks as the most favorite seafood among US consumers, and more than half of the shrimp in the market are coming from aquaculture. After decades of impressive growth, global shrimp aquaculture production in 2012 reached 3.78 million tons. However, catastrophic disease outbreaks have hindered the growing pace of the shrimp industry from time to time and caused tremendous economic loss, in billions of USD$ collectively. The most recent disease problem was the outbreak of the Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) [...]


Applications of Microalgal Biotechnology for Disease Control in Aquaculture

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Abstract: Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their [...]


Potential applications of bacteriophages for AHPND control

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Isolated phages evaluated effective in controlling major farmed shrimp disease, inhibiting bacterial growth Isolated phages tested are effective in controlling AHPND infection in farmed penaeid shrimp and inhibit bacterial growth. and inhibit bacterial growth. Photo by Darryl Jory. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a Vibrio bacterium (V. parahaemolyticus) that has caused substantial mortalities –… Potential applications of bacteriophages for AHPND control


pirABvp-Bearing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio campbellii Pathogens Isolated from the Same AHPND-Affected Pond Possess Highly Similar Pathogenic Plasmids

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Abstract: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND).  Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus have been reported.  Here we compare an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND) and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond.  Both strains are positive for the virulence gene pirABvp.  Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity.  Complete genome comparison showed that the pirABvp-bearing plasmids in the [...]


Four AHPND strains identified on Latin American shrimp farms

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AHPND is a major global disease of farmed shrimp that seriously affects the industry in many countries in Asia and Latin America. Photo by Darryl Jory. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also commonly known as Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), is a serious, major global disease of farmed shrimp that causes hepatopancreas dysfunction and secondary Vibrio infections and can result in 100 percent mortality in the animals’ juvenile stages. The disease started in China in 2010 and has currently spread to aquaculture facilities in [...]


We can grow better shrimp and in better ways

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China is obviously the major world player, both pushing and pulling the market as a producer and importer, and the country needs massive imports from Ecuador and other suppliers to satisfy its huge internal demand. Thailand continues its strong recovery from EMS/AHPND, through the increased use of improved genetic lines, enhanced production techniques and to some extent the expansion of its domestic market. Ecuador appears on track to meet or exceed its impressive 2015 production. Aquaculture in general – and [...]


Thailand: The History of Shrimp Farming and the Factors That Led to Its Growth

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Using traditional extensive techniques in large (30 hectares or more), low-lying coastal paddy fields, the first shrimp farms in Thailand were probably started during the 1930s.  Because of the dependence on natural tidal flow for wild seed and naturally occurring food organisms, yields were usually low (approximately 200 kilograms per hectare per year–kg/ha/yr). Semi-intensive shrimp farming in Thailand started during the early 1970s and was replaced by intensive shrimp farming beginning in 1987.  Penaeus monodon was the favored species because [...]


Hepatopancreatitis in prawns, Australia

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Mortalities of farmed Penaeus monodon have been observed in some ponds at several farm sites. An event in late 2015 did not meet requirements for immediate notification; however, a January 2016 event does, and both events are reported here. Affected animals range from 35 to 95 days post stocking. Mortality rates have varied from negligible to approximately 90%. Hepatopancreatitis has been associated with populations of affected shrimp. The histopathology of the hepatopancreas in affected animals is consistent with that [...]


Early Mortality Syndrome Outbreaks: A Microbial Management Issue in Shrimp Farming?

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A recent disease of farmed Penaeid shrimp, commonly referred to as “early mortality syndrome” (EMS) or more technically known as “acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease” (AHPND), was first reported in southern China in 2010 and subsequently in Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia [1]. The EMS/AHPND disease typically affects shrimp postlarvae within 20–30 days after stocking and frequently causes up to 100% mortality. The Global Aquaculture Alliance [2] has estimated that losses to the Asian shrimp culture sector amount to USD 1 [...]


Genetic Variation For Resistance To WSS, AHPND In Pacific White Shrimp

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Summary: Selection for disease resistance has been used in breeding farm animals and can be a viable option to deal with white spot syndrome and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in commercial shrimp culture. The approach is worthwhile when there are no other cost-effective control measures, and there are genetic differences for resistance to pathogens. In trials, heritability for AHPND resistance was low, while that for WSS was moderate. This indicated advancing genetic resistance is feasible, although progress with AHPND [...]